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on 3 Oct, 14:05

Latvia Country Overview

Latvia Country Overview
Post

The data below provides a quick overview of #Latvia.

Basics
1 Population
  • 1,965,686 (July 2016 est.)
2 Land area
  • total: 64,589 sq km
  • land: 62,249 sq km
  • water: 2,340 sq km
3 Capital
  • Riga
Economy
4 GDP Per Capita
  • $24,700 (2015 est.)
5 Distribution of family income – Gini index
  • 35.2 (2010)
6 GDP composition, by sector of origin
  • agriculture: 3.4%
  • industry: 23.2%
  • services: 73.4% (2015 est.)
Social
7 Urbanisation
  • urban population: 67.4% of total population (2015)
  • rate of urbanization: -0.67% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
8 Unemployment
  • 8.7% (2015 est.)
  • Youth unemployment: 19.6% (2014 est)
9 No. of population below poverty line
  • NA%
Environment
10 Natural resources
  • peat, limestone, dolomite, amber, hydropower, timber, arable land
11 Land use
  • agricultural land: 29.2%
    arable land 18.6%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 10.5%
  • forest: 54.1%
  • other: 16.7% (2011 est.)
12 Environmental issues
  • Latvia’s environment has benefited from a shift to service industries after the country regained independence; improvements have occurred in drinking water quality, sewage treatment, household and hazardous waste management, as well as reduction of air pollution

Background Info

Several eastern Baltic tribes merged in medieval times to form the ethnic core of the Latvian people (ca. 8th-12th centuries A.D.). The region subsequently came under the control of Germans, Poles, Swedes, and finally, Russians. A Latvian republic emerged following World War I, but it was annexed by the USSR in 1940 – an action never recognized by the US and many other countries. Latvia reestablished its independence in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union. Although the last Russian troops left in 1994, the status of the Russian minority (some 26% of the population) remains of concern to Moscow. Latvia acceded to both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004; it joined the euro zone in 2014.

Note 1: Data in this page is extracted from The World Factbook because of their comprehensiveness covering all countries in the world, for the ease of data comparison. Free usage of this data is permitted, click here for more information.

Note 2: The information above was accessed on August 23, 2016. The country page on The World Factbook for Latvia can be accessed here.

on 3 Oct, 13:58

Spain Country Overview

Spain Country Overview
Post

The data below provides a quick overview of #Spain.

Basics
1 Population
  • 48,563,476 (July 2016 est.)
2 Land area
  • total: 505,370 sq km
  • land: 498,980 sq km
  • water: 6,390 sq km
    note: there are two autonomous cities – Ceuta and Melilla – and 17 autonomous communities including Balearic Islands and Canary Islands, and three small Spanish possessions off the coast of Morocco – Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera
3 Capital
  • Madrid
Economy
4 GDP Per Capita
  • $34,800 (2015 est.)
5 Distribution of family income – Gini index
  • 35.9 (2012)
6 GDP composition, by sector of origin
  • agriculture: 2.5%
  • industry: 22.7%
  • services: 74.8% (2015 est.)
Social
7 Urbanisation
  • urban population: 79.6% of total population (2015)
  • rate of urbanization: 0.52% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
8 Unemployment
  • 22.5% (2015 est.)
  • Youth unemployment: 53.2% (2014 est)
9 No. of population below poverty line
  • 21.1% (2012 est.)
Environment
10 Natural resources
  • coal, lignite, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, uranium, tungsten, mercury, pyrites, magnesite, fluorspar, gypsum, sepiolite, kaolin, potash, hydropower, arable land
11 Land use
  • agricultural land: 54.1%
    arable land 24.9%; permanent crops 9.1%; permanent pasture 20.1%
  • forest: 36.8%
  • other: 9.1% (2011 est.)
12 Environmental issues
  • pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas; water quality and quantity nationwide; air pollution; deforestation; desertification

Background Info

Spain’s powerful world empire of the 16th and 17th centuries ultimately yielded command of the seas to England. Subsequent failure to embrace the mercantile and industrial revolutions caused the country to fall behind Britain, France, and Germany in economic and political power. Spain remained neutral in World War I and II but suffered through a devastating civil war (1936-39). A peaceful transition to democracy following the death of dictator Francisco FRANCO in 1975, and rapid economic modernization (Spain joined the EU in 1986) gave Spain a dynamic and rapidly growing economy and made it a global champion of freedom and human rights. More recently the government has focused on measures to reverse a severe economic recession that began in mid-2008. Austerity measures implemented to reduce a large budget deficit and reassure foreign investors have led to one of the highest unemployment rates in Europe. Spain assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2015-16 term.

Note 1: Data in this page is extracted from The World Factbook because of their comprehensiveness covering all countries in the world, for the ease of data comparison. Free usage of this data is permitted,click here for more information.

Note 2: The information above was accessed on August 23, 2016. The country page on The World Factbook for Spain can be accessed here.

on 3 Oct, 13:47

Finland Country Overview

Finland Country Overview
Post

The data below provides a quick overview of #Finland.

Basics
1 Population
  • 5,498,211 (July 2016 est.)
2 Land area
  • total: 338,145 sq km
  • land: 303,815 sq km
  • water: 34,330 sq km
3 Capital
  • Helsinki
Economy
4 GDP Per Capita
  • $41,100 (2015 est.)
5 Distribution of family income – Gini index
  • 26.8 (2008)
6 GDP composition, by sector of origin
  • agriculture: 2.9%
  • industry: 26.9%
  • services: 70.2% (2015 est.)
Social
7 Urbanisation
  • urban population: 84.2% of total population (2015)
  • rate of urbanization: 0.5% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
8 Unemployment
  • 9.4% (2015 est.)
  • Youth unemployment: 20.5% (2014 est)
9 No. of population below poverty line
  • N/A%
Environment
10 Natural resources
  • timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone
11 Land use
  • agricultural land: 7.5%
    arable land 7.4%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0.1%
  • forest: 72.9%
  • other: 19.6% (2011 est.)
12 Environmental issues
  • air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations

Background Info

Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It gained complete independence in 1917. During World War II, Finland successfully defended its independence through cooperation with Germany and resisted subsequent invasions by the Soviet Union – albeit with some loss of territory. In the subsequent half century, Finland transformed from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is among the highest in Western Europe. A member of the EU since 1995, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro single currency at its initiation in January 1999. In the 21st century, the key features of Finland’s modern welfare state are high quality education, promotion of equality, and a national social welfare system – currently challenged by an aging population and the fluctuations of an export-driven economy.

Note 1: Data in this page is extracted from The World Factbook because of their comprehensiveness covering all countries in the world, for the ease of data comparison. Free usage of this data is permitted,click here for more information.

Note 2: The information above was accessed on August 23, 2016. The country page on The World Factbook for Finland can be accessed here.

on 3 Oct, 13:32

France Country Overview

France Country Overview
Post

The data below provides a quick overview of #France.

Basics
1 Population
  • 66,836,154
    note: the above figure is for metropolitan France and five overseas regions; the metropolitan France population is 62,814,233 (July 2016 est.)
2 Land area
  • total: 643,801 sq km; 551,500 sq km (metropolitan France)
  • land: 640,427 sq km; 549,970 sq km (metropolitan France)
  • water: 3,374 sq km; 1,530 sq km (metropolitan France)
  • note: the first numbers include the overseas regions of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Reunion
3 Capital
  • Paris
Economy
4 GDP Per Capita
  • $41,200 (2015 est.)
5 Distribution of family income – Gini index
  • 30.1 (2013)
6 GDP composition, by sector of origin
  • agriculture: 1.7%
  • industry: 19.3%
  • services: 79% (2015 est.)
Social
7 Urbanisation
  • urban population: 79.5% of total population (2015)
  • rate of urbanization: 0.84% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
8 Unemployment
  • 9.9% (2015 est.)
  • Youth unemployment: 23.2% (2014 est)
9 No. of population below poverty line
  • 8.1% (2012 est.)
Environment
10 Natural resources
  • metropolitan France: coal, iron ore, bauxite, zinc, uranium, antimony, arsenic, potash, feldspar, fluorspar, gypsum, timber, arable land, fish
  • French Guiana: gold deposits, petroleum, kaolin, niobium, tantalum, clay
11 Land use
  • agricultural land: 52.7%
    arable land 33.4%; permanent crops 1.8%; permanent pasture 17.5%
  • forest: 29.2%
  • other: 18.1% (2011 est.)
12 Environmental issues
  • some forest damage from acid rain; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from urban wastes, agricultural runoff

Background Info

France today is one of the most modern countries in the world and is a leader among European nations. It plays an influential global role as a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, NATO, the G-8, the G-20, the EU, and other multilateral organizations. France rejoined NATO’s integrated military command structure in 2009, reversing DE GAULLE’s 1966 decision to withdraw French forces from NATO. Since 1958, it has constructed a hybrid presidential-parliamentary governing system resistant to the instabilities experienced in earlier, more purely parliamentary administrations. In recent decades, its reconciliation and cooperation with Germany have proved central to the economic integration of Europe, including the introduction of a common currency, the euro, in January 1999. In the early 21st century, five French overseas entities – French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Reunion – became French regions and were made part of France proper.

Note 1: Data in this page is extracted from The World Factbook because of their comprehensiveness covering all countries in the world, for the ease of data comparison. Free usage of this data is permitted,click here for more information.

Note 2: The information above was accessed on August 23, 2016. The country page on The World Factbook for France can be accessed here.

on 20 Sep, 15:09

SDG17: Partnerships for the goals

SDG17: Partnerships for the goals
Post

#SDG17 – Revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development

Finance

  • Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to developing countries, to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection
  • Developed countries to implement fully their official development assistance commitments, including the commitment by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent of ODA/GNI to developing countries and 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries ODA providers are encouraged to consider setting a target to provide at least 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries
  • Mobilize additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources
  • Assist developing countries in attaining long-term debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt financing, debt relief and debt restructuring, as appropriate, and address the external debt of highly indebted poor countries to reduce debt distress
  • Adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countries

Technology

  • Enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation and enhance knowledge sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, in particular at the United Nations level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism
  • Promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed
  • Fully operationalize the technology bank and science, technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology

Capacity building

  • Enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity-building in developing countries to support national plans to implement all the sustainable development goals, including through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation

Trade

  • Promote a universal, rules-based, open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system under the World Trade Organization, including through the conclusion of negotiations under its Doha Development Agenda
  • Significantly increase the exports of developing countries, in particular with a view to doubling the least developed countries’ share of global exports by 2020
  • Realize timely implementation of duty-free and quota-free market access on a lasting basis for all least developed countries, consistent with World Trade Organization decisions, including by ensuring that preferential rules of origin applicable to imports from least developed countries are transparent and simple, and contribute to facilitating market access

Systemic issues

Policy and institutional coherence

  • Enhance global macroeconomic stability, including through policy coordination and policy coherence
  • Enhance policy coherence for sustainable development
  • Respect each country’s policy space and leadership to establish and implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable development

Multi-stakeholder partnerships

  • Enhance the global partnership for sustainable development, complemented by multi-stakeholder partnerships that mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources, to support the achievement of the sustainable development goals in all countries, in particular developing countries
  • Encourage and promote effective public, public-private and civil society partnerships, building on the experience and resourcing strategies of partnerships

Data, monitoring and accountability

  • By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts
  • By 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement gross domestic product, and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries
on 20 Sep, 15:07

SDG16: Peace, justice and strong institutions

SDG16: Peace, justice and strong institutions
Post

#SDG16 – Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies

  • Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere
  • End abuse, exploitation, trafficking and all forms of violence against and torture of children
  • Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all
  • By 2030, significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows, strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets and combat all forms of organized crime
  • Substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms
  • Develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels
  • Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels
  • Broaden and strengthen the participation of developing countries in the institutions of global governance
  • By 2030, provide legal identity for all, including birth registration
  • Ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms, in accordance with national legislation and international agreements
  • Strengthen relevant national institutions, including through international cooperation, for building capacity at all levels, in particular in developing countries, to prevent violence and combat terrorism and crime
  • Promote and enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies for sustainable development
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